The principle of the flipped classroom is to modify from top to bottom the classic organization of a course and to ask students to familiarize themselves with the theory before coming to class; the time then available allows the organization of activities whose aim is to help the students assimilate new concepts. The classroom activities draw on the higher cognitive functions of analyzing, synthesizing, evaluating and origination, according to Bloom’s revised taxonomy in 1994.
The main course material is in digital form, in order to have the students annotate the text with comments, questions or answers to questions. Online annotation systems allow the students’ contributions to be tracked automatically and makes the organization of asynchronous work much easier. It is interesting to note that the asynchronous teaching in a flipped course may contain video or may not, Some of my asynchronous classes consist essentially of readings with networked annotations. The model of the flipped classroom isn’t a fixed model and may have therefore no recourse to videos, questionnaires or on-line games as is sometimes the case, but uses preparatory reading, a classic activity which technology can render interactive.
Lectures are replaced by teamwork in order to foster experimentation in situations that are close to the world of professional work and to develop transferable communicative and collaborative competences.
More than a revolution, the flipped classroom model is an evolution in teaching that takes into account the characteristics of new generations of learners and the externalization of knowledge in the digital world.
When the printing press appeared, at the end of the sixteenth century Montaigne proclaimed loud and clear in his essays that he preferred a fully developed mind to a head full of facts, a mind which knows how to reflect rather than to accumulate knowledge, a mind that knows how to find facts rather than to memorize them. Today, students have on their computers all the knowledge available and search engines can find information faster than any experienced competent librarian could ever do.
Dumont A., Berthiaume, D., La Pédagogie inversée (2016) de Boeck, Belgium.